Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 广西：发挥海洋优势 做足旅游篇章.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
But I don't think you can say that to us anymore. Are we even on your list of priorities? My father always says "You are what you do, not what you say." 但我不能再相信这样的话了，孩子们还是你们的优选名单吗？我爸爸总是说：“听其言，观其行，是认识一个人最好的方法”。
尽管金融行业整体趋势向上，但相较于男性，女老板执掌的企业筹得的资金历来处于落后状态。例如，2013年上半年，寻求融资的企业中，老板是女性的企业仅占16%，而其中又仅有24%的女性接受了天使资金。Plum Alley是一家为女性创业者提供在线商务服务的平台，最近该公司推出了一个专注于帮助女性创新者推进到下一个事业阶段的众筹平台。作为呈现爆炸式增长趋势的众筹领域（预计明年规模将达到39.8亿美元）中的首个此类平台，我们应该能看到Plum Alley在未来一年中在女性创业领域扮演重要角色。
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200911/88512.shtmlThe price of Chinese zodiac stamps commemorating the 1980 Year of the Monkey have rocketed to a historical high for a number of reasons, according to National Business Daily.
For both, opponents are enemies rather than fellow citizens who think differently.
2017年排行榜的前几名几乎清一色都是法国商学院。校区位于里尔和尼斯的北方高等商学院(Edhec Business School)首次登上该榜单榜首。自2011年该榜单编制以来一直排名第一的巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris)如今降至第二名。
香港科技大学(Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)和凯洛格管理学院(Kellogg School of Management)合办的中美EMBA项目重新夺回英国《金融时报》100个最佳EMBA项目排行榜的冠军宝座。
The study is available online.